Biological and non-biological pollutants of yamuna river Darshan Malik, Sunita Singh, Jayita Thakur, Raj Kishore Singh, Amarjeet Kaur, S Nijhawan

Biological and non-biological pollutants of Yamuna River


Darshan Malik1, Sunita Singh1, J Thakur1, RK Singh2, Amarjeet Kaur2, Shashi Nijhawan1

1Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji College, University of Delhi

2Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka


Received: 04 May 2016                                    Revised Accepted: 14 June 2016




Yamuna is one of the most-polluted rivers in the country. The prevailing condition of the river is of serious concern. About 85 percent of the pollution is caused by domestic and industrial sources. The level of industrial pollution in the Yamuna River is nearly 13 times the permissible limit. The quality of the water is severely affected by the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. The water quality is not fit for bathing, underwater life and domestic supply. It has been reduced to a small stream, draining industrial effluents, sewage, dirt and other toxic substances. A wide range of contaminants are continuously introduced into the river and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, evolutionary and environmental reasons. Among these contaminants, heavy metals due to their toxicity, accumulation and non-degradable nature, constitute one of the most dangerous groups. Heavy metals viz, Lead, Copper, Cadmium, Chromium, Zinc, Nickel and Arsenic have adverse effects on human metabolism and health. Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals may cause damage to the central nervous system, lungs, kidneys, liver, endocrine glands and bones. There is an urgent need to take strict measures to ensure cleansing of the river and prevent further contamination.


Key Words: Anthropogenic activities, Environment, Heavy metals, Plants, Toxic effects